resource center


03 00 00 - Concrete
04 00 00 - Masonry
05 00 00 - Metals
08 00 00 - Openings
09 00 00 - Finishes
10 00 00 - Specialties
11 00 00 - Equipment
12 00 00 - Furnishings
21 00 00 - Fire Suppression
22 00 00 - Plumbing
23 00 00 - HVAC
26 00 00 - Electrical
27 00 00 - Communications
31 00 00 - Earthwork
32 00 00 - Exterior Improvements
33 00 00 - Utilities
34 00 00 - Transportation

Exterior Improvements

Site Construction covers a wide variety of site-related items, including demolition, site preparation, earthwork, pilings, pavings, utilities, sewerage and drainage, site improvements, and landscaping.

There are many factors affecting the estimate for Site Construction, including existing conditions, state and local regulations, and climate. Bad weather can create large cost overruns due to dewatering, repair of damaged work, and loss of productivity. A site visit should be made before performing the estimate, and these issues should be examined and quantified.

The scope of work included in demolition can range from the removal of a window or boxes found in a corner, to the complete dismantling and removal of existing structures. The individual estimator must assess the particular project and determine whether the takeoff should be performed by the piece, square foot, cubic foot, or the whole.

Site preparation involves preparing a site to start other work. This includes clearing the land of all trees, shrubs, stumps, etc. It also includes demolition of existing structures, dewatering, and shoring.

Earthwork can be a nebulous area that includes mass excavation, trench excavation, hauling, backfill, compaction, and grading &mdash%3B all tasks that involve working or shaping the earth, including their related materials. On many sites, earthwork consumes a great amount of time and money. It is an area well worth the added time and care it will take to create a complete estimate.

Pilings and caissons are utilized when the ground cannot adequately support the structures designed. These are usually taken off individually by type, length, and material.

Pavings, site improvements, and landscaping all involve finishing the land area not directly covered by the main structure. While these may not be big money items, generally they should not be minimized, as they are the areas of the project that the public will see most and by which the company occupying the building may be judged. Pavings are generally taken off by the square yard of area to be surfaced. Site improvements and landscaping are so individual that their takeoff methods cannot be generalized. Each site must be evaluated individually to determine how to handle the estimate.

Sewerage and drainage are generally taken off by the foot and/or by the unit of whatever system is used. Keep in mind that the state and local municipality will usually be closely involved in the selection and installation plan for sewerage and drainage, as there are many regulations that must be complied with. Good information for this part of the project can usually be found at the local authority`s office.

Be sure to consider:

    • Site Preparation
    • Earthwork
    • Piles and Caissons
    • Paving and Surfacing
    • Site Improvements
    • Landscaping

Browse Exterior Improvements Subdivisions by MasterFormat®

32 01 00 - Operation and Maintenance of Exterior Improvements
32 05 00 - Common Work Results for Exterior Improvements
32 10 00 - Bases Ballasts and Paving
32 30 00 - Site Improvements
32 70 00 - Wetlands
32 80 00 - Irrigation
32 90 00 - Planting


Sorry, no research content exists for Exterior Improvements.